Paul's Epistle to the Romans

 (36) Present Salvation for Both Jew and Gentile
Romans 10:13-21


13 For “whoever calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved.”
14 How then shall they call on Him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher?
15 And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: “How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the Gospel of peace,Who bring glad tidings of good things!”
16 But they have not all obeyed the Gospel. For Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed our report?”
17 So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.
18 But I say, have they not heard? Yes indeed: “Their sound has gone out to all the earth, And their words to the ends of the world.”
19 But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: “I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.”
20 But Isaiah is very bold and says: “I was found by those who did not seek Me; I was made manifest to those who did not ask for Me.”
21 But to Israel he says: “All day long I have stretched out My hands To a disobedient and contrary people.”


Introduction

Why did Israel stumble over Christ and reject Him? Because they did not understand the kind of righteousness God wanted or how to get it. Like the Pharisees (and many people today), they thought only of righteous works and could not comprehend a righteousness that comes by faith.

The missionary heart of Paul comes out in verses 14–17. Salvation is by faith, and faith comes “by hearing . . . the word of God” (v. 17). But unbelieving sinners (including Israel) cannot hear unless we tell them. God needs people with beautiful feet  [1](Isa. 52:7) to carry the Gospel to the lost.

Despite Paul’s broken heart (v. 1) and God’s outstretched hands (v. 21), Israel did not believe; but the Gentiles did believe and God saved them! When you feel discouraged in your witnessing, remember Paul; continue caring, praying, and sharing the good news. Keep those feet beautiful!

          ________________________________introduction notes___________________________________

[1](Isaiah 52:7)       How beautiful upon the mountains Are the feet of him who brings good news, Who proclaims peace, Who brings glad tidings of good things, Who proclaims salvation, Who says to Zion,“Your God reigns!”

 

Commentary

13 For “whoever calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

Just as chapter 9 stressed divine sovereignty in salvation, this passage stresses human responsibility. Scripture does not view these two principles as inconsistent or contradictory, but as mutually compatible truths.

[2]Joel 2:32 (see below) is quoted to prove that the Gospel is offered to all. One could scarcely wish for a simpler statement of the way of salvation than is found in these words: “Whoever calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved.” This makes it very clear that both Jew and Gentile are to call on the Lord (pray for salvation). Everyone is included; no one is excluded. Thank God for an all-inclusive salvation.

A Jew would find it very hard to believe that the way to God was not through the Law; this way of trust and of acceptance was increditably new to him. Further, he would have real difficulty believing that the way to God was open to everybody. The Gentiles did not seem to him to be in the same position as the Jews at all. So Paul presents his argument by citing an Old Testament text (see [2]Joel 2:32) to prove his case. There is no limitation there; the promise is to everyone; therefore, there is no difference between Jew and Greek.

The name of the Lord stands for the Lord Himself. We are to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. The prophet foretold that salvation would be granted, not on the ground of nationality, but on that of calling upon the Name of the Lord. In the words “all flesh,” in [3]Joel 2:28 (see below), there was an intimation of the eradication of national distinctions. In this passage in Joel, “the Lord” is Jehovah. This quotation, applied to Christ as Lord in the matter of man’s salvation, gives a clear testimony to the deity of Christ.

The expression calls on the name of the Lord is a common Old Testament expression of worship (see [4]I Kings 18:24). Paul’s application of this principle to Christ is another example of his practice of taking Old Testament passages, which refer to God the Father and, without any qualification whatsoever, applying them to Christ. Thus, in the New Testament, sinners are advised to call upon the name of the Lord Jesus Christ (see [5]II Tim 2:22). The ground for human responsibility in salvation arises out of the fact that the Gospel is offered to all, irrespective of national heritage. Both Jew and Gentile may be saved by the grace of God.

__________________________________verse 13 notes__________________________________________

[2]Joel 2:32   "And it shall come to pass That whoever calls on the name of the LORD Shall be saved. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, As the LORD has said, Among the remnant whom the LORD calls". All who turn to Jesus as Messiah, calling on His name, will be saved.

[3]Joel 2:28  "And it shall come to pass afterward, That I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh; Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your old men shall dream dreams, Your young men shall see visions." God will pour out His Spirit on all flesh in that day. The younger generation shall prophesy and see visions and the old men shall dream dreams. This latter prophecy was partially fulfilled in Acts 2:16–21, but Pentecost did not exhaust it. Its complete fulfillment will take place at the outset of Christ’s one-thousand year reign.

[4]1 Kings 18:24    "Then you call on the name of your gods, and I will call on the name of the LORD; and the God who answers by fire, He is God. So all the people answered and said, “It is well spoken.”An agreement was made that the deity that responded in sending fire upon a slaughtered bullock would be unequivocally declared the true God.

[5]2  Timothy 2:22  "Flee also youthful lusts; but pursue righteousness, faith, love, peace with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart."  Flee from youthful lusts. The youthful desires for fame, fortune, and fun are to be run from, but that which the believer is to pursue is a catalogue of Christian graces—righteousness, faith, charity, peace.

 

14 How then shall they call on Him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher?

Paul now gives a rationale for his responsibility to present the Gospel worldwide. Men are told that they must call upon the name of the Lord to be saved. However, they will not call unless they have been moved to believe in Him, and they cannot believe in Him unless they hear about Him. Furthermore, they cannot hear about Him unless the good news of the Gospel is brought to them. The Gospel message will not be taken to the unbeliever until someone is sent to him. Consequently, salvation begins with God’s sending process. Isaiah was asked the double question, “Whom shall I send?” and “Who will go for us?” Isaiah’s answer was, “Here am I; send me” (Is. 6:8). Isaiah was willing to go with the message, but he could not go until he was sent by God. Consequently, Paul indicates that each of us has been sent by the Lord Jesus (see [6]John 20:21) and the success of getting the Gospel message to those who need it is now dependent upon our obedience as servants of the Lord. We must proclaim the Gospel message in every nook and cranny of the globe, because we are commissioned to do so; for unless they hear they cannot be saved. The voice of Christ is heard through His messengers; therefore, the voice of the preacher is the instrument that Christ uses to communicate His message of salvation.

The Gospel message is a universal proclamation. Of what use is a salvation offered to Jews and Gentiles if they never hear about it? Here we have the heartbeat of Christian missions!

In a series of three “how’s” (how shall they call ... believe ... hear without a preacher), the apostle goes back over the steps that lead to the salvation of Jews and Gentiles. Perhaps it will be clearer if we reverse the order, as follows: God sends out His servants. They preach the good news of salvation. Sinners hear God’s offer of life in Christ. Some of those who hear believe the message. Those who believe call on the Lord. Those who call on Him are saved.

It should be pointed out that this is an argument founded on the principle that if God wills the end, He also wills the means to reach that end. This, as we have said, is the basis of the Christian missionary movement. Paul is vindicating his preaching the Gospel to the Gentiles, a policy that the unbelieving Jews considered inexcusable.

_________________________________verse 14 notes__________________________________________ 

[6]John 20:21   "So Jesus said to them again, “Peace to you! As the Father has sent Me, I also send you.”  The resurrection had certain implications for the disciples. It gave them Peace, and it implied a commission: So send I you.

 

15 And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: “How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the Gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things!”

God is the One who sends. We are the ones who are sent. What are we doing about it? Do we have the beautiful feet, which Isaiah ascribed to Him who brought glad tidings of good things (see [7]Isa. 52:7)? Isaiah writes of the beautiful feet of Him—that is, the Messiah. Here in Romans 10:15 the “him” becomes “those.” He came with beautiful feet 2000 years ago. Now it is our privilege and responsibility to go with beautiful feet to a lost and dying world.

And how shall they preach unless they are sent?—There would have been no sending if Jewish prejudice had its way. The Holy Spirit had come, His will had overridden the antagonism of this prejudice and, in fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy, He had Himself sent forth heralds of the Gospel to proclaim the glad tidings. It was the Holy Spirit who said, in the church at Antioch; “Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them” (Acts 13:2). This prerogative and power of the Holy Spirit should not have been replaced by human devices. He still calls, equips, and sends His messengers of peace, where churches seek to obey the revealed will of the Lord instead of following human tradition.

Preaching means “to be a herald, to announce.” It is not limited to proclamations made from behind a pulpit. Carrying God’s gracious offer involves human beings whom God has brought to Himself and then uses as heralds. They share God’s message of salvation because He will save everyone who calls on His name.

As it is written: “How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the Gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things!”—Probably, these words were originally intended to describe those who carried the good news home to Jerusalem, that the days of Babylonian exile were passed. But in the context of the New Testament, these words indicate that the feet of a Gospel messenger are beautiful things to those who believe the message and place their faith in the Lord Jesus. They become new creations in Christ Jesus. This may happen to any man who hears the Gospel and believes.

__________________________________verse 15 notes____________________________________

[7]Isaiah 52:7     "How beautiful upon the mountains Are the feet of him who brings good news, Who proclaims peace, Who brings glad tidings of good things, Who proclaims salvation, Who says to Zion, “Your God reigns!” Isaiah used this statement for a future event—the return of Christ and the establishing of His glorious kingdom. “Your God reigns!” (Read Isaiah 52:7-10) The messenger with the beautiful feet announced that God had defeated Israel’s enemies and that the Messiah was reigning from Jerusalem. But Paul used the quotation in a present application: the messengers of the Gospel taking the good news to Israel today. The peace spoken of is “peace with God” (Rom 5:1) and the peace Christ has effected between Jews and Gentiles by forming the one body, the church (Eph. 2:13-17). The remedy for Israel’s rejection is hearing the word of the Gospel and believing on Jesus Christ.

 

16 But they have not all obeyed the Gospel. For Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed our report?”

Paul now comes to the crux of his argument concerning human responsibility and the righteousness of God. He claims that God takes the responsibility for Jewish unbelief and places it squarely upon the shoulders of the Jews. The Gospel has been near unto them, it has been offered unto them, but it has not been believed by them. As proof of this, he again quotes from the Jews’ own Scripture as recorded in [8]Isaiah 53:1 (see below), Lord, who hath believed our report? The report was Isaiah’s message of the Gospel concerning the Messiah. It was brought to the mouths of the Jews and offered to them, but that message was not obeyed. This confirms that the unbelief of the Jews was foretold by the prophets. Trusting Christ is not only a matter of believing, but of obeying. Not to believe in Christ is to disobey God. “God commandeth all men everywhere to repent” (Acts 17:30). True faith must touch the will and result in a changed life.

_________________________________verse 16 notes______________________________________

[8]Isaiah 53:1  Who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed?
Who hath believed our report? is more of an explanation than a questioning. It does not demand a negative response; it is merely designed to call attention to the lack of faith in the world in general. Historically speaking, Israel rejected the spoken message God gave them about their Messiah. Yet, the Scripture clearly maintains that a remnant of Israel would come to faith in Him. To have believed the report of the prophets and have been the recipient of the revelation of the arm of God is to have surrendered one’s self by faith to the person and authority of the Lord God.

 

17 So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

In this quotation from Isaiah, Paul notices that the belief spoken of by the prophet springs from the message that is heard, and that the message comes through the word about the Messiah. So he lays down the conclusion that faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. Faith comes to men when they hear our preaching and witnessing concerning the Lord Jesus Christ, which is based, of course, on the written word of God.

But hearing with the ears is not enough. A person must hear with an open heart and mind, and be willing to be shown the truth of God. If he does, he will find that the word has the ring of truth, and that the truth will authenticate itself. He will then believe. It should be clear, of course, that the hearing alluded to in this verse does not involve the ears exclusively. The message might be read, for example. So, “to hear,” means to receive the word by whatever means. Here the Word of God is the Gospel message. It is more than a gracious offer but a command to believe and repent (see [9]Heb. 5:9).

In today’s Christian community, unnumbered people grow up with only a nodding acquaintance with the Christian faith. Oh, they know the vocabulary, but they misunderstand the central truths. They have enough familiarity with its teachings to give them a vague respect for it, but not enough to permit its truths to modify their lives.

___________________________________verse 17 notes_________________________________________

[9]Hebrews 5:9    "And having been perfected, He became the author of eternal salvation to all who obey Him," And having been perfected. This cannot refer to His personal character because the Lord Jesus was absolutely perfect, and always has been. His words, His works, and His ways were absolutely flawless. In what sense then was He perfected? The answer is in His office as our Savior. He could never have become our perfect Savior if He had remained in heaven. But through His incarnation, death, burial, resurrection, and ascension, He completed the work that was necessary to save us from our sins, and now He has  acquired the glory of being the perfect Savior of the world.

Having returned to heaven, He became the author of eternal salvation to all who obey Him. He is the Source of salvation for all, but only those who obey Him are saved.

Here salvation is conditional on obeying Him. In many other passages, salvation is conditional on faith. How do we reconcile this seeming contradiction? First of all, it is the obedience of faith (Rom. 1:5; 16:25–27): “the obedience which God requires is faith in His word.” But, it is also true that saving faith is the kind that results in obedience. It is impossible to believe, in the true New Testament sense, without obeying.

 

18 But I say, have they not heard? Yes indeed: “Their sound has gone out to all the earth, And their words to the ends of the world.”

What then has been the problem? Haven’t both Jews and Gentiles heard the Gospel preached? Yes. Paul borrows the words of [10]Psalm 19:4 (see below) to show that they have. He says, Yes, indeed: “Their sound has gone out to all the earth, And their words to the ends of the world.”  But the surprising thing is that these words from Psalm 19 are not speaking of the Gospel. Rather, they describe the universal witness of the sun, moon, and stars to the glory of God. But as we said, Paul borrows them and says, in effect, that they are equally true of the worldwide proclamation of the Gospel in his own day. By inspiration of the Spirit of God, the apostle often takes an Old Testament passage and applies it in quite a different way. The same Spirit who originally gave the words surely has the right to reapply them later on.

But I say,—This introduces two rhetorical questions to meet the two possible excuses which might be advanced on behalf of Jewish unbelief, namely, (1) that all did not have an opportunity of receiving the good tidings and (2) that the information was not given.

have they not heard?—This question implies that the first excuse is invalid. The truth revealed in Psalm 19 certainly leaves the people of Israel without an excuse. Israel in its bigotry claimed it had a monopoly on salvation in spite of the fact that Moses and Isaiah predicted the salvation of the Gentiles.

Yes indeed: “Their sound has gone out to all the earth, And their words to the ends of the world.”—The answer to the first excuse is from [11]Psalm 19:4 (see below), which, while primarily referring to the universal testimony to God in nature, is here shown to have contained a foreshadowing of the universal proclamation of the Gospel. The Psalm itself couples together the voice of creation and that of the written word. Israel had the benefit of having both, for she saw God at work in nature and she received God’s written Word. Israel heard but she did not heed. No wonder Jesus often had to say to the crowds, “He that hath ears to hear, let him hear!”

The question was, is it possible that some of his Jewish brethren have not heard the message of the Gospel?  Paul’s answer is that the Gospel had gone out through the entire Jewish world and therefore there was no excuse for ignorance of its claims. Nature reveals enough concerning God to make it the duty of man to worship the God of heaven and earth. God declares that the invisible things of Him “are clearly seen…even His eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse” (Rom 1:20). Yes, the heavens do declare the glory of God. The skies do show forth the work of His hands. There is no place on this earth where nature does not declare that there is a Supreme Being somewhere behind this great and wonderful universe. Therefore, man is without excuse.

__________________________________verse 18 notes_______________________________________

[11]Psalm 19:4   "Their line has gone out through all the earth, And their words to the end of the world. In them He has set a tabernacle for the sun,"  Day unto day and night unto night the creation of God emits speech testifying to the person of God. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. The creation of God speaks without sound or language, but with great pictorial wonder that is understood throughout the world—For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse” (Rom 1:20).

 

19 But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: “I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.”

The call of the Gentiles and the rejection of the Gospel by the majority of Jews should not have come as a surprise to the nation of Israel. Their own Scriptures foretold exactly what would happen. For example God warned that He would provoke Israel to jealousy by a non-nation (the Gentiles), and anger Israel by a foolish, idolatrous nation (see [12]Deut. 32:21).

But I say, Did Israel not know?—There are two ways of understanding this question: (1) Did Israel not know the Gospel? (2) Did Israel not know that God would save Gentiles? The latter is perhaps more in keeping with the context, and that is indicated by the quotations that follow. The Jews had not only listened to the message about Christ but knew that God would deal with other nations besides themselves.

First Moses says: “I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.”—The only difference in the wording from that in [12]Deuteronomy 32:21 is that “you” is substituted for “them,” making the reference to Israel more pointed. Moses, then, had foretold not only that God would show favor to Gentiles, but that, as Israel had moved God to wrath by their rebellion and rejection of His word, He would, by means of the favor shown to Gentiles, move Israel to jealousy. The word “nation” stands for gentile people in general.

What marvelous grace! When Israel rejected her Messiah, God sent the Gospel to the Gentiles so that they might be saved. One reason why God sent the Gospel to the Gentiles was that He might provoke the Jews to jealousy. It was an act of grace both to the Jews and to the Gentiles.

Israel’s rejection had nothing to do with lack of opportunity or inability to understand. It rested solely on the nation’s willful disobedience. They insisted on personal merit as the way to gain God’s approval. They had been equipped to understand that God’s requirement for righteousness is faith.

______________________________________verse 19 notes__________________________________________

[12]Deuteronomy 32:21   " They have provoked Me to jealousy by what is not God; They have moved Me to anger by their foolish idols. But I will provoke them to jealousy by those who are not a nation; I will move them to anger by a foolish nation."  God saw Israel’s sin and abhorred it, which means He rejected their idol worship. There were two results of this rejection: first, God would hide His face, that is, withdraw His favor from Israel; and second, He would chasten them according to His promises. Israel had worshiped Idols and not God. Not God meant a god who could not take care of his people, and therefore does not deserve to be worshiped. And not a nation refers to a nation that has refused God’s laws and customs as a way of life—the Gentiles.

 

20 But Isaiah is very bold and says: “I was found by those who did not seek Me; I was made manifest (Clearly visible; evident; obvious.) to those who did not ask for Me.”

In even bolder language, Isaiah quotes the Lord as being found by the Gentiles, who weren’t really looking for Him, and being made manifest to those who weren’t asking for Him (see [13]Isa. 65:1). Taken as a whole, the Gentiles did not seek after God. They were satisfied with their pagan religions. But many of them did respond when they heard the Gospel. Relatively speaking, more Gentiles responded than Jews did.

But Isaiah is very bold,—He prophesied at the risk of his life. He goes further, than even Moses did. The prophet’s statement is very bold because he utterly ruled out any merit or privilege on the part of the Jews. He said that the Gentiles, who had been indifferent to God, would someday have the Gospel preached to them and would come to a knowledge of God. Paul proclaims that this is that day and that the Gospel is open to anyone who believes on Jesus Christ.

and says: “I was found by those who did not seek Me; I was made manifest to those who did not ask for Me.”—This is quoted almost verbatim from [13]Isaiah 65:1, except that the two clauses are inverted, perhaps to give immediate prominence to the first and to express more pointedly the fact of the reception of the Gospel by Gentiles.

___________________________________verse 20 notes______________________________________

[13]Isaiah 65:1   "I was sought by those who did not ask for Me; I was found by those who did not seek Me. I said, ‘Here I am, here I am,’ To a nation that was not called by My name." God speaks to the Gentiles who have come to trust in His salvation. I was found by those who did not seek Me refers to the election of the Gentiles as the New Testament church of God. The fact that God has declared Himself unto a nation (Gentiles) is indicative of His sovereign election. The rebellious people are the Jews who have refused God’s gracious offer of salvation and provoked the Lord’s anger by their attitude that: I am holier than thou.

 

21 But to Israel he says: “All day long I have stretched out My hands To a disobedient and contrary people.”

Against this picture of the Gentiles flocking to Jehovah, Isaiah portrays the Lord standing all day long with outstretched, beckoning hands to the nation of Israel, and being met with disobedience and stubborn refusal.

I have stretched out My hands—This gives the suggestion of a gracious attitude of one making a plea and invitation.

Have you ever stopped to think how tiresome it is to hold out your hands for a long period of time? Try it sometime and see how long you can do it. It is one of the most tiring things in the world. When I was in Marine Corps boot camp, the drill instructors used a unique method of punishment. They would order you to hold your M1 rifle out in front or overhead while running in place. Your arms would tire quickly and they felt like they were going to fall off. But God says, “I have stretched out My hands all day long to a rebellious people.” No one knows how gracious God has been to the nation Israel.

Do you know why God is so patient with Israel and us? He tells us why in 2 Peter 3:9—“The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance.”  God has promised to end the history of human kind with judgment. If there seems to be delay, it is not because God is unfaithful to His promise. It is because He is patient. He does not want any to perish. His desire is that all should come to repentance. He purposely extends the time of grace so that men might have every opportunity to be saved.

To a disobedient and contrary people.”—This quotation is from [14]Isaiah 65:2 (see below), with a slight change in the order of phrases. In this case, the word “disobedient” literally means, “to refuse to be persuaded,” and therefore signifies either to refuse compliance or to refuse belief.

This final quotation states the cause of Israel’s condition. In spite of God’s long-suffering and patient invitation, they had persisted in being disobedient to God’s word. They were neither without knowledge nor without understanding of the will of God. Their ignorance was the result of stubbornness and pride. With the Gentiles, it was different.

Paul now brings to a conclusion his teaching on righteousness and human responsibility. He places the blame on men and not on God. All day long I have stretched out My hands To a disobedient and contrary people. The Lord God has patiently dealt with Israel throughout history (all day long) but she has been disobedient to His love. She is therefore guilty of spurning the love of God, and the responsibility for her future is clearly her own. By the way, “all day long” includes this age of grace that we are living in—He is holding out His hands to all and inviting us to come to Him.

_________________________________verse 21 notes________________________________________

[14]Isaiah 65:2    "I have stretched out My hands all day long to a rebellious people, Who walk in a way that is not good, According to their own thoughts;"  God pleaded with His people to turn from their sins and come back to Him, but they refused. They acted so pious and yet were guilty of many sins: worshiping idols, following occult practices, violating dietary laws, and blaspheming God. But if the Jews rejected God’s call, the Gentiles responded in their place.


Summary

The Jews have themselves to blame. God did not make the Jews reject Christ; they did it of their own accord. It was simply a matter of hearing. The Jews heard and were willfully disobedient. How to reconcile this with [15]Romans 9:16 (see below) we do not know; one day we will fully understand, although the questions that now perplexes us will undoubtedly fade into insignificance, in the radiance of His presence.

[15]Romans 9:16    "So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy."   The conclusion, then, is that the ultimate destiny of men or of nations does not rest in the strength of their will or in the power of their exertions, but rather in the mercy of God.

When Paul says that it is not of him who wills, he does not mean that a person’s will is not involved in his salvation. The gospel invitation is clearly directed to a person’s will, as shown in Revelation 22:17: “Whoever desires, let him take the water of life freely.” Jesus exposed the unbelieving Jews as being unwilling to come to Him (John 5:40).

When Paul says, nor of him who runs, he does not deny that we must strive to enter the narrow gate (Luke 13:24). A certain amount of spiritual earnestness and willingness are necessary. But man’s will and man’s running are not the primary, determining factors: salvation is of the Lord. Morgan says: “No willing on our part, no running on our own, can procure for us the salvation we need, or enable us to enter into the blessings it provides. ... Of ourselves, we shall have no will for salvation, and shall make no effort toward it. Everything of human salvation begins in God.”


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